Diferencias de género en presión arterial, función renal y respuesta a la dieta hipersódica en ratas Wistar


Introducción: Es conocido que el sexo es un condicionante de la regulación renal de sodio y de la presión arterial. Material y métodos: Se estudiaron ratas Wistar machos y hembras a los 150 días de vida, con dieta normo o hipersódica (NaCl 1% v.o.) en los últimos cinco. Se determinaron presión arterial media (PAM), natriuresis, filtrado glomerular (VFG), flujo plasmático renal (FPR) y aldosterona plasmática. Se estudió la expresión Na+,K+-ATPasa total (t-NKA) y defosforilada (d-NKA), citocromo P4504A (CYP4A), cotransportadores Na+,K+,2Cl- tipo 2 (NKCC2) y Na+/Cl- (NCC) y por PCR el ARNm de la cadena α1 de NKA (Atp1a1) en corteza y médula renal. Resultados: La PAM fue mayor y la natriuresis menor en los machos bajo ambas dietas. Con ingesta hipersódica la aldosterona bajó en ambos sexos, el VFG fue menor en hembras y el FPR aumentó en machos (4,09 ± 0,17 vs 2,81 ± 0,12 ml/min/gR; p<0,01 vs dieta normosódica).  La t-NKA, d-NKA y Atp1a1 en médula fue mayor en machos con ambas dietas. Con ingesta hipersódica, t-NKA en médula y d-NKA en corteza y médula disminuyeron en hembras y solamente d-NKA disminuyó en médula de machos. Asimismo, aumentó CYP4A y disminuyó NKCC2 y NCC en hembras, mientras que aumentó NKCC2, sin cambios en NCC, en machos. Conclusión: El sexo condiciona la presión arterial y el balance de sodio, disminuyendo su reabsorción en hembras y aumentando el FPR en machos. Esto sugiere posibilidades  de estudio diferenciales según sexo en trastornos del metabolismo del sodio.
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